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A number of laws allow the government to suspend telecommunications networks.
During the coverage period, there were no reports of intentional disruptions to ICT connectivity.
The government centralizes internet infrastructure in a way that facilitates control of content and surveillance.
Kazakhtelecom, through its operations and a number of subsidiaries, holds a de facto monopoly on backbone infrastructure.
According to Budde, a telecommunications research and consultancy company, the mobile broadband market is mature and developed, and further growth is predicted over the next five years.
Access is distributed relatively evenly across Kazakhstan's multiethnic communities.
However, there is much more domestic content available in Russian than in Kazakh, especially in alternative news coverage online; social media discussions are also held primarily in Russian.
Kazakhstan is also developing a complex infrastructure to control internet traffic.
In July 2017, the State Technical Service, which supervises peering centers and cross-border connections, became subordinate to the National Security Committee, Kazakhstan's most powerful secret service.
Prior to this, the service was under the Ministry of Information and Communications.
The government has since prosecuted DVK-related activity and content online under broad and harsh extremism laws.
Authorities have also requested that a number of social media and communication apps remove DVK content and groups from their platforms.